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Hornsea 2 – A sea change for UK Wind Power

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Wind power provides an ever growing amount of electricity for the United Kingdom and by the end of July 2019, it consisted of 9,929 wind turbines with a total installed capacity of over 21.5 gigawatts: 13,062 megawatts of onshore capacity and 8,483 megawatts of offshore capacity.

This placed the United Kingdom at this time as the world’s sixth largest producer of wind power.] As of 2012, polling of public opinion consistently shows strong support for wind power in the UK, with nearly three quarters of the population agreeing with its use, even for people living near onshore wind turbines

Through the Renewables Obligation, British electricity suppliers are now required by law to provide a proportion of their sales from renewable sources such as wind power or pay a penalty fee. The supplier then receives a Renewables Obligation Certificate (ROC) for each MWh of electricity they have purchased. Within the United Kingdom wind power is the largest source of renewable electricity and the second largest source of renewable energy after biomass.

2018 has been a seminal year for wind Power in the UK. Since 2016 Wind Power has been a greater proportion of supply to the UK national grid than coal but in the first quarter of 2018 even supplanted Nuclear Power in terms of percentage of supply.

The UK is fast becoming a world leader in Wind Power largely due to the UK governments willingness to invest in the technology coupled with the geographical advantages of being an island nation. With the UK considered to be one of the best locations for Wind technology not only in Europe but also the world there is no let up in the UK’s investment in Wind Power.

The next planned stage is the Hornsea two offshore wind farm which will be situation 56 miles off the Yorkshire coast adjacent to the Hornsea one wind farm currently under construction.

Hornsea 2 however is not simply an extension of Hornsea one, as with all things progress will not be abated, Hornsea 2 will have some of the largest wind turbines ever constructed, the new generation of Siemens Gamesa 8MW SG 8.0-167 DD turbines capable of delivering an additional 20% annual power output than those used for Hornsea one.

The numbers are mind warping, 165 Siemens Gamesa 8 Mega Watt turbines which will give Hornsea 2 a capacity of 1.4 GW, capable of providing power to 1.3 million UK homes. Hornsea 2 will span an offshore area of 462Km2 and become fully operational in 2022.

At 1.4 GW, Hornsea Two will overtake Hornsea One as the world’s biggest offshore wind farm.  Manufactured locally to avoid extensive shipping costs, the blades will be delivered from the Siemens Gamesa factory in Hull. The project will use the world’s largest offshore substation and will deliver the most affordable electricity from offshore wind to date.

Project developer Ørsted (previously Dong Energy) gained the rights to the project in August 2015 through the acquisition of SMartWind, a 50:50 joint venture (JV) between Mainstream Renewable Power and Siemens Financial Services.

The scoping report for the project was completed in 2012. The consent application was submitted to the Planning Inspectorate (PINS) for examination in January 2015 and completed in March 2016.

Development consent for the project was granted by the Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change in August 2016, and the final investment decision was taken in September 2017.

The project is in the early stages of construction. It is expected to be completed by 2022, generating around 2,000 jobs during construction and an additional 130 positions during its 25 years’ of operation. It is expected to provide clean energy for approximately 1.3 million British households.

The entire electrical output from the project will be conveyed to the 400kV National Grid transmission station at North Killingholme, following the same route as Hornsea Project One’s transmission system.

The project proposes the use of either a high-voltage direct current (HVDC) or high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) transmission system. With a HVDC, the project would require construction of six offshore HVAC collector substations and two HVDC converter stations at the offshore site. The HVAC option would involve construction of an offshore HVAC collector substation and two offshore HVAC reactive compensation substations.

Landfall for the transmission cable will be located at Horseshoe Point, near the village of North Cotes, Lincolnshire. The HVDC route would require the installation of four onshore cable trenches, while the HVAC option would require the laying of eight onshore cable trenches.

The onshore HVDC converter station or HVAC substation will be constructed midway from the landfall to the National Grid transmission station. The facility will be approximately 200m-long, 150m-wide, and 40m-high.

The total length of the offshore transmission subsea cables will be 150km, whereas the onshore transmission cable will be 40km-long.

Ørsted will operate the wind project from its operations hub currently under construction in Grimsby, which will be the largest facility of its kind in the UK upon its opening. The offshore construction on the windfarm site will begin in 2020, upon completion of the onshore cable construction, which began in 2019.

Massive step forward’

Managing director Matthew Wright said it was a “breakthrough moment” and a “massive step forward” for UK wind energy.

“Not only will Hornsea Project Two provide low cost, clean energy to the UK, it will also deliver high quality jobs and another huge boost to the UK supply chain,” he said.

“Long-term and highly-skilled jobs are being created across the North of England and the UK supply chain is going from strength to strength.”

Paul Cowling of Innogy, which won the Triton Knoll contract, said: “The importance of offshore wind in the UK’s energy mix is now beyond doubt.

“Wind energy should be at the very core of the UK Government’s energy policy and our long-term energy security.”

Whilst wind power can never be relied upon to produce an output for a base load in the way a Nuclear or gas fired power station can with the provision of on demand power, Wind can work alongside base load power to provide an ever increasing amount of electricity for the UK.

Toxic Air Reduction Imminent in the UK with the Introduction of a Clean Air Act

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Air quality in the UK could soon be enhanced after Chris Philp, a Conservative MP, introduced a Clean Air Act. The legislation in itself is wide ranging and seeks to lower air pollution across the UK through the expansion of Clean Air Zones and ensuring no vehicles idle unnecessarily outside schools.

Extensive backing

The new Clean Air Act has been extensively backed by different MPs from Tories, SNP and Liberal Democrats to Labour and will see diesel vehicle sales restricted. Local authorities in the UK will also have to engage in tree planting while promoting the use of electric taxis and buses.

MP Chris Philp, who represents Croydon, introduced the ambitious act on 3rd September 2019 citing the importance of the Act to the health of the nation. The MP indicated that air pollution was cutting short the lives of around 40,000 people annually in the country with the old, sick and young hugely threatened.

In the Private Members Bill, Philp also noted that the 2018 joint Select Committee received evidence the largest second cause of deaths that can be avoided after smoking was air pollution.

The government published the Clean Air Strategy early in 2019 seeking to confront air pollution within the UK. While praising the Strategy, Philp observed that with the Clean Air Act air pollution will be handled intensively than what the measures published by government in the Clean Air Strategy seek to achieve.

Proposed measures

The MP indicated that measures in the Clean Air Act involve increasing tree cover in urban regions to help with air pollution absorption, ensuring taxis and buses are electric and deterring drivers with fines from idling outside schools with running car engines. Diesel cars would also be decimated by the Act; diesel cars in the real world were observed to cause more emissions than the same cars in controlled laboratory conditions.

In the proposal, expansion of low emission areas would be carried out, which comes just a few days after the government was requested by leadership in cities to create a national web of thirty Clean Air Zones.

The bill has already passed the first reading, but with the impending government prorogation it might take a while before it is deliberated and passed into law.

Scientists Reveal Solar Power in China is more Affordable than Grid Electricity

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New research has indicated that compared to grid electricity in Chinese cities, solar energy is actually cheaper.  This is expected to raise the uptake of solar power in the country.

Not the same cost though

While grid parity is what has been accomplished in China due to government support and advanced technologies, generation of grid electricity doesn’t cost the same as the generation of solar. For that to be accomplished, China requires at least a decade.

Cheaper in 344 Chinese cities

According to the researchers from Stockholm’s Royal Institute of Technology involved in the study that appeared in the Nature Energy journal, 344 cities in China have more affordable solar energy. 22 per cent of all cities in the study were also found to have solar mechanisms of generating low cost energy than even coal.

Renewables more appealing

Clean energy is highly desired globally and the technology involved is becoming cheaper. As the energy demands in China keep rising, solar energy and other renewable sources are becoming a highly appealing investment option.

According to energy experts, the study concludes that commercial and industrial solar are now affordable than what grid electricity has been for years. As a result, industries, homes and workshops globally could now take up solar with commercial gain being the impetus and distorted impacts and subsidies out of the picture.

100 per cent growth in 25 years

In just a quarter of a century, solar panels in China have grown from zero to 100 per cent surpassing any other nation in the world. China hosts some of the largest solar farms globally, such as the world vastest Tengger Desert scheme. Of all commissioned new infrastructure in China in 2017, half was related to renewable energy making the country the largest renewable energy sources investor.

Coal dominance eyesore

In China, coal has remained an eyesore that has refused to dip, catering for about 60 per cent of the entire energy market while solar only stands at 5 per cent. This is due to the long-term solar investment process requiring lots of installation and development costs many policymakers consider expensive and rather costly in the short term. With the cost of solar dipping and forecasted to keep plummeting, lots of companies and industries are expected to adopt a wait and see attitude until prices have gone down further.

More still needed

Scientists in the study also suggested changes in policy that would motivate more solar energy adoption. This comes after investment in clean renewable energy around the world went up in 2017, which was far more than what was invested in fossil fuels.

Globally, intensive efforts have seen investment in renewable energy, particularly solar and wind increase from a mere 5 per cent to a remarkable 12 per cent. Even with the notable progress, International Energy Agency indicate lots of investment in clean energy is still needed to ensure over 1.5C of global warming on average doesn’t happen as per the guidelines of the Paris Climate pact.

Nuclear Energy’s Hydrogen Seen as a Low Carbon Power Source UK Needs

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According to the Committee on Climate Change report, UK hydrogen technology development has been lagging. To change this, diverse projects have been set up by the UK government to find ways of making the most of hydrogen beneficial to the country.

Clean energy source

Due to its nature, Hydrogen gas is considered a critical new clean energy resource. Because once hydrogen has burned the only waste produced is water, it is a comprehensive fossil fuel alternative capable of ensuring homes are heated, cars powered and factories operated by such a low carbon source of energy.

Must be affordable

For any source of energy to effectively deal with the climate crisis anywhere, including the UK, it must display clean energy attributes and cheap for widespread use. Currently, hydrogen production has been on-going heavily globally mostly for refining of oil and manufacturing fertilisers. Nonetheless, most regions on Earth use methane gas rather than hydrogen in these applications; methane is actually notorious for polluting the atmosphere with carbon dioxide.

According to the IEA (International Energy Agency), the production of hydrogen actually releases carbon to the atmosphere at a rate of 830 million tonnes annually. While carbon dioxide removal from hydrogen production is possible, the process is expensive and makes the usefulness of hydrogen as a clean energy source unpalatable.

Now a different cheaper method could change all that.

Enter H2H

EDF Energy is spearheading the H2H (Hydrogen to Heysham) project where electrolysers linked to the Heysham nuclear energy station will be used to divide water molecules creating oxygen and hydrogen. Of course, renewable energy sources can create the gas using the same method but nuclear produces energy that’s low in carbon and very cost effective.

Lancaster as a chief hydrogen hub

H2H is expected to make Lancaster a chief hydrogen centre, considering the project’s partnership with Lancaster University will see an intensive research centre for the project created. Hydrogen once produced will be significant for different applications in transport and local industries and even heat Lancaster homes in the near future.

On-going studies

H2H project is already carrying out diverse studies to study the technical and commercial potential of the project. Later on, a demo project will be arranged at the Heysham location slated to kick off in 2020. While the project is in its early steps, the scheme’s stakeholders expect nuclear production of hydrogen to pick up fast in all eight UK nuclear power hubs.

New way of maximising on nuclear

Hydrogen to Heysham has been touted as a new method of maximising on the potential of nuclear within the UK. Nuclear is a low carbon reliable energy source cable of producing low carbon power that would be effective in lowering UK’s carbon footprint.

According to the Climate Change Committee, 2050 should see the capacity of hydrogen production in the UK equal or surpassing that of the current gas-fuelled powered stations. As a result, the H2H project has kicked off with the hope of meeting this ambitious objective.

Hyundai Sonata-The New Way of Powering a Luxury Car Using the Sun

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Lots of industries have adopted solar energy in different ways and the automotive industry hasn’t been left behind. The Korean carmaker, Hyundai has launched its solar battery charged Sonata hybrid. The battery of the Sonata will be charged around 60 per cent by a solar roof. Essentially, six hours in the sun daily are required if the solar roof will meet the 60 per cent charge needed.

Enough propelling power

The solar panels on the car will offer sufficient power to move the Sonata around 800 miles annually. Other models in the Hyundai range will also receive the solar roof if the need be as an extra. The panels are expected to lower carbon emissions while enhancing its fuel efficiency.

Together with an improved system of engine control, the panels will guarantee the Hyundai Sonata remains energy efficient. Considering the Sonata is one of the hybrids with small batteries, charging with a solar roof could be the difference.

Even so, reservations on additional weight on a vehicle and high costs have always lingered on the adoption of a solar panel on a passenger car.

 Semi-transparent solar roof

To add more light to the cabin of the car, Hyundai is also involved in testing a second-generation type of semi-transparent solar roof. The Sonata hybrid with a solar roof will be on sale in Korea and North America with plans to sell the model in other markets not yet on the shelf. Hyundai is yet to give a price for the car.

Not the first

While a solar roof on a car is revolutionary, Hyundai isn’t really the first carmaker to design solar panels for cars. Toyota Prius already has charging mechanisms powered by solar optionally available as well as Karma Revero luxury car that comes with such a charging option.

Lightyear, a start up in the Netherlands is also developing a solar panelled electrical car on both the roof and bonnet to keep the battery sufficiently charged. The car, dubbed Lightyear One will go for £137,000 after its launch in 2021.

Geothermal Energy Potential in Minewater Can Heat Over 180 Million Homes in the UK

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The UK is already looking to net zero emissions of greenhouse gasses by 2050, an ambitious undertaking requiring all manner of clean energy sources that have no harmful effect to the atmosphere and environment. Unknown to many, the UK has widespread untapped energy source all over in former coal mines.

 Sitting on geothermal gold

Studies indicate that over 9 million buildings ranging from businesses to homes in the UK, particularly in large cities beyond London, are spread atop inactive coalfields. At the peak of coal mining the industry employed over 1.25 million individuals and fuelled the UK economy for more than a hundred years; the last of the infamous deep mines ended its operations back in 2015.

Problematic minewater

All the diverse networks of coal mines hold approximately two billion cubic metres of critical water resource, which surrounding rocks have been heating up to 16 degrees Celsius. As a result, the hot minewater has become a major problem and costs about £18 million to manage effectively through the Coal Authority to make sure that its pollutants and huge iron components do not threaten rivers and clean drinking water.

Zero carbon potential contributions

According to the Coal Authority, the potential of minewater is so high that it is a real potential provider of clean energy. It can be used in many areas from new housing, leisure programs to horticulture. Research by the Authority indicates that heating alone accounts for 32% of emissions in the UK and 45% of energy used in the region.

According to minewater experts, only half of energy supply in the UK is decarbonised with the country still relying heavily on natural gas to meet its heating needs, which is around 70%. As such, closed mines offer a huge opportunity to tap the large scale water resource for the decarbonisation of heat.

Coal Authority believe from its preliminary data the current geothermal potential in coal mines could heat up over 180 million households and has been mapping this resource around Britain.

Minewater is actually being used by some companies already. Lanchester Wines is a great example, which spent over a quarter of a million pounds in drillings that didn’t yield any of the critical geothermal resource.  However, the company now operates the largest commercial heating scheme run on minewater. Millions of wine bottles are kept temperate while the heat also ensures a distribution depot close by functions optimally.  

The Gateshead establishment operates a 2.4 megawatts system giving out 6 kilowatts of heat for every one kilowatt of used electricity. The success of the installation has been recognised after the renewable heat government incentive program paid the company £117,000.

Minewater heat research

To effectively adopt minewater across the UK, British Geological Survey has been undertaking research in a previous industrial area in Glasgow. Minewater adoption faces huge challenges, such as scaling up utilisation of the resource, development and adoption costs, finding potentially perfect locations for drilling and convincing communities to accept heating systems they might have little control over.

Durham county council is already inviting tenders across the board to set up a swimming pool leisure centre heated with minewater. South Wales’ Bridgend local authority has also been busy with scientists developing a network of minewater heating for use locally.

While coal was used in the carbonisation of the UK economy, coal mines could now be the new way of decarbonising it.

World’s Longest 12 Megawatts Capacity Wind Turbine Blade Being Tested in Northumberland

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Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult will have the benefit of testing the longest world wind turbine blade stretching 107 metres long. Designed by LW Wind Power, the wind turbine blade is engineered for use with the Haliade-X turbine by GE Renewable Energy and rises 260 metres after full installation.

Rigorous tests

The facility at Blyth, Northumberland will see the blade put into some of the most extremely demanding tests to ensure that it can operate for years without issues in deep global waters. In future, three similar blades will also be put into the same test in a Rotterdam prototype testing facility.

Compared to an A380 aircraft over-all wingspan, the wind turbine blade is much larger and a remarkable fete in the wind energy industry.

Digital functionalities

 The turbine is a huge investment running into millions. It’s expected to drastically reduce the expensive cost of offshore wind equipment. Apart from a rotor that’s 220 metres in length, it comes digitally enabled. Its top capacity factor, long blade and huge rotor attributes guarantee that the wind turbine blade will be most insensitive to variations of wind speed, boost predictability while generating lots of energy even when the speed of wind isn’t much.

Lots of clean power

The wind turbine once installed will be able to produce unequalled energy yearly at very low wind levels. In fact, the 12 megawatts turbine will be able to offer 67 GW of power every year, ensuring that over 16,000 homes in Europe enjoy sufficient clean power depending on the state of wind as normally experienced along the German North Sea. According to the annual energy output, a typical 750 megawatts Haliade-X 12 megawatts wind farm could power over a million homes sufficiently.

Developing technology

Wind turbines like most renewable energy components are constantly being improved and designed to incorporate new technologies while their size is also going up. For instance, Vestas MHI Offshore Wind released their V164-10.0 turbine, the first commercial turbine of its kind in 2018. V164-10 has blades stretching about 80 metres, each weighing 35 tons with a 187-metre long tip.  

Wind Energy to Gain from Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

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Wind turbines have among others key components such as SCADA (Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition), key software for both visualisation and management processes. With the system, wind turbines are controlled and effectively managed to ensure the wind farm yields its maximum every time.

To ingrain the next generation control operations into wind farm systems, the Nordex Group is offering an Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)-based Nordex OS SCADA EDGE that ensures their control systems and next-gen operations are set with the automatic virtual solution that doesn’t require any hardware. The IIoT platform-based Nordex OS SCADA EDGE is a joint venture between Cumulocity IoT and Software AG.

Cuts cost of wind energy production

One way wind energy production will be less costly and affordable across the board is by ensuring wind farms are operated optimally and at their best possible levels always. To accomplish this, each turbine in the system needs to be SCADA program adjusted to boost cross turbines interaction around the wind farm with the continuously gathered wind data managed and analysed in real-time vis-à-vis the conditions of the local grid.

Nordex 2 Control SCADA ensures the conditions are enhanced, which has been extensively tested and tried while the IIoT-based Nordex OS SCADA EDGE will come up with ways of ensuring lots of data is not only displayed but accessible, including other different wind farm components like battery storage and substation.

Future proof and virtual

Considering it’s merely a virtual automated system, the new SCADA program can have additional components of a wind energy farm analysed and managed through the system. Beyond the fact that it doesn’t need expensive hardware installation to work, the IIoT based system independency also means it is future-proof; it works on new generations of hardware servers.

The typical IIoT platform ensures that data processing could be decentralised and centralised. While applied on premise, NORDEX OS guarantees that the control centre is able to gather data from all over the world centrally from the Germany city of Hamburg. A good example is a Nordex OS Control Centre ability to enquire and test parameters automatically on each specific turbine while checking the plausibility of every component of a wind farm.

Years of stored data

Nordex OS SCADA EDGE has a 99.9 per cent availability due to redundant multiply systems optionally guaranteed by Nordex Group. As such, the IIoT-based system is calibrated to store the massive data but not more than five years. With parallel servers in operation, processes go uninterrupted without losses of data even if a server unit were to experience complete outage.

IIoT-based software to start operation by 2020

SCADA EDGE has been created largely for the Delta4000 and Delta series by the Nordex Group and capable of operating older turbine versions. The first installation of the IIoT-based SCADA EDGE in wind farms will take place in 2020.

Subsidy-free 46MW Onshore Crossdykes Wind Farm will power 45K Homes

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South west Scottish areas of Galloway and Dumfries are the host of the Crossdykes Wind Farm expected to generate 46 megawatts courtesy of a partnership between WWS Renewables and Muirhall Energy. Once completed, the project will become Scotland’s first subsidy-free onshore wind farm of its own kind.

Close Brothers Leasing are funding the wind farm, which is made up of 10 Nordex-supplied turbines that will provide enough energy to power close to 45,000 households beginning September 2020 when the first power is expected to be generated.

Largest contribution

According to Muirhall Energy, the subsidy-free project is one of the few in the UK expected to make significant contribution, particularly if the project was supported on issues surrounding the Contract for Difference. This will ensure the building of some of the sites already provided for the project. The onshore wind development will make its contribution in the area of climate change by offering clean energy while ensuring normal users pay less for energy.

10 per cent stake for local community

The local community has also received a 10 per cent stake from Muirhall to buy into the project through community-based share offers. Lots of local groups have responded in kind and involved in the assessment of the most prudent way of investing in the Wind Farm onshore project.

The Scottish Energy Islands and Connectivity government officials have welcomed the onshore wind energy project terming it a landmark moment for Scotland onshore wind; it will help meet some of the objectives of the Energy Strategy of the region and a key way of addressing the looming climate emergency.

Contract of Difference exclusions

Onshore wind has been recognised by the Scottish Government, especially in its net-zero ambitions and critical role in the regime’s energy mix and the economy of the region. A system of price stabilisation is expected to encourage the installation of additional similar wind projects to give consumers lots of options in cheap and clean energy.

According to the Scottish Government, if the UK government was to ensure that the Contract for Difference excluded established technologies from the auctions mechanism onshore wind could significantly deliver lots of its potential benefits faster and immensely.

Flourishing Wind Energy and the Problem of Waste

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For environmentalists and many governments wind energy looks more like the future of clean energy and the silver lining of renewable energies. However, once a wind farm has closed down a serious waste problem rises threatening its green credentials.

Wind turbines are sturdy enough and made to last the longest, but not forever. Some have a lifespan of 20 years and thereafter have to be discarded. Most of them are recycled or end up with a new lease of life in another wind farm. However, disposal still remains a major issue. In the United States alone, over 720,000 tonnes of wind turbine blades and related material will need to be disposed within two decades even without counting the new generation of higher capacity, longer and newer blade versions.

Few recycling options

When it comes to recycling, very few options exist for blades. The choices in place are usually expensive, considering the youthfulness of the wind energy industry in most places, including the United States. While wind energy is a highly rated solution by environmentalists and clean energy advocates that could have a huge impact on the war against climate change, the problem of waste could dampen this hope.

 In fact, wind energy is already attracting huge investment from giant companies such as Hormel Foods and Budweiser while creating lots of jobs along the Great Plains and Midwestern areas of the United States.

Nebraska prairie in the mix

One of the wind projects to find itself with a major wind turbine blade waste problem is the Kimball Wind Project along the prairie southwest of Nebraska. The wind energy project now has a lot of waste to grapple with, which include turbine blades as long as 127 feet. After its life, a turbine’s parts can be sold or recycled up to 90 per cent, which are fibreglass and resin blend made, materials that are also used to create spaceship parts. However, once the blades are done, their value decreases and become almost useless.  

More difficulties

Once decommissioned, blades aren’t the easiest to transport and largely difficult to move around. Ranging between 100 feet and 300 feet in length, transporting them requires that they are slashed to smaller sizes for easier conveyance to landfills by trucks using specialised expensive machinery.

Since most wind projects are based in small municipalities having hundreds of very long turbine blades in a landfill mean local trash points will fill up fast majorly with wind farm wastes. Most of the disposal points in municipal areas in the US, such as Casper in Wyoming have crushing equipment that cannot crush blades effectively and has to be cut up into smaller manageable pieces to avoid incurring huge expenses for top of the range crushing systems.

Since the European Union waste management guidelines and laws are already clear on such waste disposal, most companies in Europe simply sell their old wind farm components such as blades to countries in Latin America and Asia.

New disposal methods

Even with waste problems it doesn’t mean new disposal methods aren’t being developed. Technology officers and researchers at Global Fibreglass Solutions have come up with a system for blades recycling where resin is removed from them. The resin is then ground to create pellets the size of chocolate for use in piping, pallets or decking. A start up for this exercise has already been launched in Texas with another in Des Moines in Iowa about to be leased.

Decommissioning of wind farms isn’t expected to stop and disposing the different parts will continue being a major headache for lots of stakeholders. To keep the clean energy credentials of wind and balance it with landfill footprint decrease, better and efficient ways of disposal must be developed and adopted.